Jump to navigation Jump top 10 Devon and Cornwall PDF search This article is about the county in England. South West England in the United Kingdom.
Författare: John Plumer.
Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, and there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. High Middle Ages, and expanded greatly during the 19th century, when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Cornwall is noted for its geology and coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. The north coast has many cliffs where exposed geological formations are studied.
In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background. Saint Piran’s Flag is the national flag and ancient banner of Cornwall, and an emblem of the Cornish people. The name appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 891 as On Corn walum. Cornwall forms the tip of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and is therefore exposed to the full force of the prevailing winds that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is composed mainly of resistant rocks that give rise in many places to tall cliffs. The north and south coasts have different characteristics. The north coast on the Celtic Sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, is more exposed and therefore has a wilder nature.
The south coast, dubbed the „Cornish Riviera“, is more sheltered and there are several broad estuaries offering safe anchorages, such as at Falmouth and Fowey. Beaches on the south coast usually consist of coarser sand and shingle, interspersed with rocky sections of wave-cut platform. Bodmin Moor, which contains the highest land within Cornwall. The intrusion of the granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks gave rise to extensive metamorphism and mineralisation, and this led to Cornwall being one of the most important mining areas in Europe until the early 20th century. The uplands are surrounded by more fertile, mainly pastoral farmland. Near the south coast, deep wooded valleys provide sheltered conditions for flora that like shade and a moist, mild climate.
These areas lie mainly on Devonian sandstone and slate. The geology of the Lizard peninsula is unusual, in that it is mainland Britain’s only example of an ophiolite, a section of oceanic crust now found on land. Truro, Cornwall’s administrative centre and only city. Cornwall’s only city, and the home of the council headquarters, is Truro. Nearby Falmouth is notable as a port. Cornwall borders the county of Devon at the River Tamar. Cardiff and Swansea, across the Bristol Channel, have at some times in the past been connected to Cornwall by ferry, but these do not operate now.