Jump palermo, oh Palermo! PDF navigation Jump to search This article is about criminal organizations in general commonly referred to as „mafias“. The term „Mafia“ was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia and originates in Sicily, but it has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e. Russian Mafia“ or „the Japanese Mafia“.
Författare: Emily Lowe.
1857 – nachdem sie zuvor den St. Gotthard-Pass zu Fuß überquert hatte – traf Emily Lowe in Begleitung ihrer Mutter in Palermo ein. Von dort reisten die »due donne sole«, die überall Aufregung und Bewunderung auslösten, weiter nach Catania, Messina, Syrakus – abseits der traditionellen Routen, also einsamer, beschwerlicher, gefährlicher. Das hier erstmals in Deutsch vorliegende Buch ist eine Entdeckung: Die junge Frau aus der englischen Oberschicht suchte das Abenteuer und Kontakt zu den Menschen. Treffend beschreibt sie das Leben der Aristokratie, einfühlsam das der kleinen Leute. Sie erzählt von Bauern und Fischern, von Frauen, die fürs tägliche Brot Spitzen klöppeln, von Einladungen in die Häuser der Reichen, von sizilianischer Mode und von schäbigen Hotels, von Tempeln und der Vielfalt der italienischen Kunst. Und schließlich von der gefahrenvollen Besteigung des Ätna: »Ich fühle den Moment gekommen, in dem zwei Wunder der Schöpfung, ein schneebedeckter Vulkan und die Neugier der Frauen, sich einander auf die Probe stellen.»
The word mafia derives from the Sicilian adjective mafiusu, which, roughly translated, means ’swagger‘, but can also be translated as ‚boldness‘ or ‚bravado‘. Large groups of Italian migrant workers, primarily from the south of the country, first arrived in the US due to a US labor shortage, which was a result of the US Civil War, the end of slave labor, and the hundreds of thousands killed in the war. As the migrant laborers from Sicily arrived, they were met with prejudice and discrimination. As migrant laborers from Sicily arrived for work, they created their own labor system called the ‚padrone‘ system, based on the ‚boss‘ systems which already existed during this period. The word padrone is an Italian word that means boss when translated into English. A ‚padrone‘ or boss was the middleman between the English speaking businessmen and the laborers from Sicily who were unable to speak the language. Labor laws were non-existent during this period, and the padrone system, like the boss systems, was not immune to corruption.
Many times workers were exploited, never paid, or even given the work they were promised. As the 19th century turned into the 20th century, the migrant laborers from Sicily and the padrone system became synonymous with distrust. Because Sicily was once an Islamic emirate from 831 to 1072, mafia may have come to Sicilian through Arabic, though the word’s origins are uncertain. The local peasants imitated these Arabs and as a result the tribe’s name entered the popular lexicon. A formal definition of „mafia“ can be hard to come by. The term was never officially used by Sicilian Mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as „Cosa Nostra“.
Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. The expansion of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word „Mafia“ nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia. For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves. These gangs are popularly called „the Russian Mafia“ by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term krysha. With the state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option.
In his analysis of the Sicilian Mafia, Gambetta provided the following hypothetical scenario to illustrate the Mafia’s function in the Sicilian economy. Suppose a grocer wants to buy meat from a butcher without paying sales tax to the government. Because this is a black market deal, neither party can complain to the police if either of them cheats. The grocer is afraid that the butcher will sell him rotten meat. The butcher is afraid that the grocer will not pay him. Gambetta 2009: „The mafia’s principal activities are settling disputes among other criminals, protecting them against each other’s cheating, and organizing and overseeing illicit agreements, often involving many agents, such as illicit cartel agreements in otherwise legal industries. This etymology is based on the books Che cosa è la mafia?
Mosca, Che cosa è la mafia? Coluccello, Challenging the Mafia Mystique, p. Lupo, History of the Mafia, p. Even the origin of the word ‚mafia‘ remains obscure. Lupo, The History of the Mafia Archived 2013-01-06 at the Wayback Machine. Lupo, History of the Mafia, pp. Seindal, Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, p.
Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Codes of the Underworld: How Criminals Communicate. Translation of the book „Che cosa è la Mafia“, Giornale degli Economisti, July 1901, pp. Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style.
Mafia: Money and Politics in Sicily, 1950-1997. Mafioso: a history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day. The Chinese Mafia: Organized Crime, Corruption, and Extra-Legal Protection. Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43. Many of technetium’s properties were predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev before the element was discovered. One short-lived gamma ray-emitting nuclear isomer of technetium—technetium-99m—is used in nuclear medicine for a wide variety of diagnostic tests, such as bone cancer diagnoses. In 1871, Mendeleev predicted this missing element would occupy the empty place below manganese and have similar chemical properties.
Many early researchers, both before and after the periodic table was published, were eager to be the first to discover and name the missing element. Its location in the table suggested that it should be easier to find than other undiscovered elements. The discovery of element 43 was finally confirmed in a 1937 experiment at the University of Palermo in Sicily by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè. Segrè enlisted his colleague Perrier to attempt to prove, through comparative chemistry, that the molybdenum activity was indeed from an element with the atomic number 43. In 1937 they succeeded in isolating the isotopes technetium-95m and technetium-97. Since that discovery, there have been many searches in terrestrial materials for natural sources of technetium. Technetium is a silvery-gray radioactive metal with an appearance similar to platinum, commonly obtained as a gray powder.
The metal form is slightly paramagnetic, meaning its magnetic dipoles align with external magnetic fields, but will assume random orientations once the field is removed. Technetium is located in the seventh group of the periodic table, between rhenium and manganese. As predicted by the periodic law, its chemical properties are between those two elements. Metallic technetium slowly tarnishes in moist air and, in powder form, burns in oxygen.
Technetium can catalyse the destruction of hydrazine by nitric acid, and this property is due to its multiplicity of valencies. Pertechnetate is one of the most available forms of technetium. It is structurally related to permanganate. The most prevalent form of technetium that is easily accessible is sodium pertechnetate, Na. 2 Tc2O7 It is a very rare example of a molecular metal oxide, other examples being OsO4 and RuO4. O bonds with 167 and 184 pm bond lengths. 2 HTcO4 HTcO4 is a strong acid.