Independent Learning PDF

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Das Konzept des Independent Study erfährt vor dem Hintergrund der neuen Ergebnisse der Lern- und Hirnforschung eine zunehmende Aktualität. Lern- und Kompetenzentwicklung ist nur dann nachhaltig, wenn dem Individuum im Rahmen des didaktischen Konzepts Räume geschaffen werden, sich selbstgesteuert, aktiv und selbsttätig mit den Inhalten und Anforderungen auseinanderzusetzen. Dieser Umstand stellt die Bildungsinstitutionen vor neue Herausforderungen. Es gilt, neue Lehr- Lernarrangements zu entwerfen und eine neue Lernkultur zu implementieren, welche dieser Gegebenheit Rechnung tragen. Dieser Band greift das Modell des Independent Study auf. Neben der theoretischen Auseinandersetzung mit dem Modell werden didaktische Konzepte sowie Praxisbeispiele für die Umsetzung des Modells an deutschen und ausländischen Hochschulen näher beleuchtet und vorgestellt.

Functions with multiple outputs are often referred to as vector-valued functions. In an experiment, a variable, manipulated by an experimenter, is called an independent variable. The dependent variable is the event expected to change when the independent variable is manipulated. Known values for the target variable are provided for the training data set and test data set, but should be predicted for other data.

In mathematical modeling, the dependent variable is studied to see if and how much it varies as the independent variables vary. In simulation, the dependent variable is changed in response to changes in the independent variables. Depending on the context, a dependent variable is sometimes called a „response variable“, „regressand“, „criterion“, „predicted variable“, „measured variable“, „explained variable“, „experimental variable“, „responding variable“, „outcome variable“, „output variable“ or „label“. The primary independent variable was time.

A variable may be thought to alter the dependent or independent variables, but may not actually be the focus of the experiment. So that variable will be kept constant or monitored to try to minimize its effect on the experiment. Such variables may be designated as either a „controlled variable“, „control variable“, or „extraneous variable“. Extraneous variables, if included in a regression analysis as independent variables, may aid a researcher with accurate response parameter estimation, prediction, and goodness of fit, but are not of substantive interest to the hypothesis under examination.

Subject variables, which are the characteristics of the individuals being studied that might affect their actions. These variables include age, gender, health status, mood, background, etc. Blocking variables or experimental variables are characteristics of the persons conducting the experiment which might influence how a person behaves. Gender, the presence of racial discrimination, language, or other factors may qualify as such variables. Situational variables are features of the environment in which the study or research was conducted, which have a bearing on the outcome of the experiment in a negative way. Included are the air temperature, level of activity, lighting, and the time of day. In a study measuring the influence of different quantities of fertilizer on plant growth, the independent variable would be the amount of fertilizer used.